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The Main Reasons and Stages of Periodontal Disease

The Main Reasons and Stages of Periodontal Disease
The tissues of the oral cavity may experience disorders that cause a lack of blood supply and as a result, the state of the gums and the entire oral cavity worsens.

This disorder is called periodontal disease.

The patient can detect the initial symptoms on their own, as the habitual state and appearance of the mucosa will change. Gums lose color saturation, the root is exposed, teeth and gums begin bleeding, and sensitivity of the tooth increases. The disease may develop against the background of general diseases of the body like metabolic disorders, endocrine disruptions, and problems with the cardiovascular system.

Periodontal disease is not  very common. According to statistics, about 7 out of 100 people face it. The symptoms of the disease do not immediately become apparent.  The process develops over many years and becomes chronic. Depending on the degree of exposure of the roots of the teeth and the X-ray image, the specialist determines the severity of the disease: mild, moderate or severe.

Why Does This Disease Occur?

The main factor for the development of the periodontal disease is a general decrease in body functions. Most often signs of periodontal disease include:

  • dysfunction of the cardiovascular system: tachycardia, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, hypertension

  • trophic disorders of the nervous system

  • metabolic malfunctions, including problems with the synthesis of protein, bone tissue, as well as osteoporosis

  • avitaminosis

  • gastrointestinal diseases

These are the most common causes of periodontal disease. Among local factors, malocclusion is among the risk factors.

A hereditary factor is considered as well, in particular, the carriage of macrophage monocyte cells that are capable of producing substances that dissolve bone tissue. There is a scientifically based opinion about the existence of special bacteria (periodontal pathogenic) that affect dystrophy or destruction of bone tissue.

Clinical Picture

Symptoms of periodontal disease can be obvious only with a prolonged chronic course of the disease. In the early stages, it does not cause discomfort to a person and does not serve as a reason for contacting a specialist. At different stages of the disease progression, the patient experiences certain anxieties, which manifest themselves in the state of the oral cavity and are obvious to the dentist upon examination.

Mild Stage

Increased sensitivity of the teeth is characteristic for the mild stage of periodontal disease: teeth become sensitive to the temperature of food, drink, air, etc. During a professional examination, the initial stage of the periodontal disease manifests itself in a pale gingival mucosa and exposed teeth roots (up to 3 mm). At the same time, there is no tooth shakiness, no inflammation, and pockets on the gums.

Middle Stage

With the further progression of the disease, a person experiences anxiety from the appearance of the teeth: the crown becomes longer due to exposure of the root and interdental gaps increase. A strong feeling of discomfort from thermal effects, when cleaning or putting certain substances on the enamel.

The doctor observes periodontal disease of teeth in the form of bloodless, pale, and unnaturally densified gums. Roots up to 5 mm are visible, wedge-shaped defects, and dental deposits may be present. In this case, the teeth remain motionless.

Severe Stage

With a severe stage of periodontal disease, the teeth look completely unattractive: they are displaced, the roots are bare, and teeth become friable. The patient complains of teeth pain because of increased chronic sensitivity, which interferes with a normal life.

A visual examination shows the presence of deposits, defects in dental tissue, both carious and others. Attempts to check for shakiness can lead to the easy extraction of individual units. Gums become very dense and x-ray shows severe bone loss.

Periodontal disease, along with reduced immunity or poor oral hygiene, can lead to complications. This is manifested by the development of the inflammatory process, which seriously complicates treatment and accelerates tooth loss.

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